Toxicology 11 to 20
What are the clinical features of acute ethanol consumption?
- CNS – sedation, disinhibited, impaired judgement, impaired motor skills, ataxia, slurred speech, coma, respiratory depression
- Heart – depressed myocardial contractility
- Smooth muscle – vasodilation, hypothermia in OD, uterine smooth muscle contraction
- Must mention CNS plus one other to pass.
Describe the pharmacokinetics of ethanol.
- Absorption – rapid from GI tract (water soluble), peak levels within 30 minutes
- Distribution – rapid, Vd ~TBW (0.5 – 0.7 L/kg)
- Metabolism – predominantly liver metabolism (zero order kinetics – over 90% is oxidised in the liver to acetaldehyde)
- Mainly via Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH), less by microsomal ethanol oxidising system (MEOS)
- Excretion – lungs, urine
- Bold to pass. Must mention ADH.
Name other drugs that have zero order kinetics.
- One to pass.